This would be an example of exercising some editorial discretion to make a theological point. I certainly find a strong historical core to the New Testament accounts, and Brown allows room for some degree of editorial discretion. My sense is that, given the data that we have, the historical question is ultimately not answerable and we’d do better to focus on literary and theological investigations of the texts. Mark 14:3-9 slightly gives the description of when Jesus visited the house of Simon the leper and a woman came to the table carrying an alabaster flask with a costly oil of spikenard, broke the flask and poured the oil on Jesus’ head. In contrast, Mark often features women in roles that were considered only appropriate for men, something Luke generally does not do. This is why Mark wrote the gospel he did – he wanted to show that their suffering was not in vain because Jesus really is who He says He is and that He understands what it’s like to serve and suffer. What Is the Purpose of the Nicodemus Stories in John? But they diverge on the details: in Mark’s Gospel, the disciples are primarily portrayed as “learners,” which is a nice way of saying that they still have a lot to learn. Very short answer: He didn’t want anyone confusing Jesus with the Egyptian Prophet! 1. (See Luke’s resurrection chapter discussion. For example, Luke has a tendency to avoid repetition and therefore may not have wanted a second anointing alongside Luke 7:36–50. I’m also happy to see even Jim giving Neil credit where credit is due. 1807. Additionally, the JST adds “among the disciples” after “some” to Mark’s text. “Neil, this is actually rather useful. Luke simply wrote another testament. The idea in Luke of Jesus commissioning his disciples to help him is supported by the narrative logic already discussed. This similarity is what some scholars have dubbed the â€˜synoptic problem.â€™ This raises a lot of questions. Saint Mark the Evangelist wrote the second gospel, the Gospel according to Mark. There are some exceptions; see, e.g., Luke 11:27–28. John clearly wanted to cover material that the other Gospel writers did not address; over 90% of the material in the Gospel of John is unique to the text. Where did Peter come from? His commentary also noted the respectful treatment of women that Jesus modeled. Further, reflecting on the narrative logic above, this commissioning of the disciples arises directly out of the need for them to help with the spiritual harvest. Neil is the author of this post. Explain how and why Luke may have edited Mark's Gospel. I think, though, the Marcionites were being persecuted earlier than end of 2nd century. Jesus having refused each temptation, Satan then departed and Jesus returned to Galilee to begin his ministry. The following two tabs change content below. Luke’s omission would then not reflect his specific intent in this case. This original Hebrew version was likely used by … The reasons for thinking that Luke wrote with Mark in hand include: (1) Luke is clearly following the order of events that Mark follows. For example, he shows how the miraculous catch of fish that accompanies the calling of the disciples is not just evidence of Jesus’ power but also provisions the disciples’ families so they can follow Jesus. Use the following two sets of passages to support your claim. Next, both stories present the complaint against the anointing as ironic: in Mark, she is accused of “wasting” ointment, but the reader knows that ointment used to pronounce Jesus priest and king and to prophetically announce his suffering and death is anything but wasted. This inversion of sacred and profane space continues in the anointing story, where Mark—by featuring the anointing of Jesus in an actual leper’s house instead of in the temple—shows the inversion to be complete. I don’t always agree with them, but I respect their work.”, Thanks much for this book review. The term “high” Christology is used for presentations of Jesus that emphasize his divine nature, while “low Christologies” emphasize his human aspects. Discipleship is an enormously important theme in both Mark’s and Luke’s Gospels. ), “Canonical Luke can therefore be read as making changes to Mark’s gospel that reflect a program to strengthen the foundational place of the disciples in the Church.”.  If Luke understood Mark to say that the disciples objected to the anointing, he might have chosen not to include this story in his own record because it did not cohere with the message that he wanted to present: Mark’s text shows a teaching moment, not a consecration opportunity, and thus doesn’t fit Luke’s focus. Although there is absolutely no agreement among NT scholars on the order in which Matthew, Mark, and Luke were written, many think Luke depended on either Matthew or Mark or both when writing his Gospel (cf. But back to the temple. The theme of commissioning the disciples is elsewhere a prominent one in Luke’s gospel. In the interest of our better understanding setting and context, and thereby more deeply understanding the Gospel itself, it is helpful to compare and contrast books which have similar characteristics but were written for different reasons, with different scopes, and in different contexts.  At one point, Peter even rebukes Jesus for what Jesus has taught him. How and why would Luke have edited Mark 14:3-9 contrasted with Luke 7:36-50? Required fields are marked *. John’s last chapter also depicts a miracle of an overwhelming catch of fish at the word of Jesus, and in that context it is clearly a metaphor for the conversions that Peter is expected to accomplish. This is true. And it came to pass, that, as the people pressed upon him to hear the word of God, he stood by the lake of Gennesaret, It’s tempting to ask whether there even is a problem to be solved. Similarly, we might suspect that Nephi has presented his wayward brothers in stark black and white tones when a more objective observer, such as Lehi, might have had a little more grey in his palette.  They sometimes do not understand what Jesus is saying. By the way, this is why many later Gospels are falsely attributed to apostles (e.g. . Your email address will not be published. I do think there is a structure that holds these episodes together in Mark, but it is not at the narrative level, and is another topic for another time. Notice that there is no line between Matthew and Luke. Note that all six of these texts from Mark are softened or omitted in Luke’s Gospel, so that Luke’s picture of the disciples has much less emphasis on their weaknesses. After being baptized by John the Baptist, Jesus was tempted by the devil for 40 days and nights in the Judaean Desert.During this time, Satan came to Jesus and tried to tempt him. Here are some things to look out for in the book of Mark: Mark emphasizes the power of Jesus. And they all knew that Christ was born. Don’t know. Matt 18:20: For where two or three have gathered together in my name, there I am in their midst. See Roger R. Keller, “Mark and Luke: Two Facets of a Diamond,” in Sperry Symposium Classics: The New Testament, ed. Musings on biblical studies, politics, religion, ethics, human nature, tidbits from science.  Luke omits Mark’s anointing story in order to focus our gaze on other aspects of Jesus’ ministry.  In the first two verses of Luke 22, Luke closely tracks Mark’s text as he describes the plot against Jesus. Marcion’s gospel was not a once-and-for-all text — it went through continual revisions. (4) Luke eliminates Aramaic in Mark. In Mark the Disciples were still seen as they had a lot more to learn. Luke, oddly, first has Jesus going into Peter’s house, and only afterwards calling him and others. And he entered into one of the ships, which was Simon’s, and prayed him that he would thrust out a little from the land. So is the shared irony of the complaint evidence of overlap, or are the differing details evidence of separation? His answer prioritizes the anointing due to the limited window of time during which it is possible. But I have prayed for you, that your faith should not fail; and when you have returned to me, strengthen your brethren. When Simon Peter saw it, he fell down at Jesus’ knees, saying, Depart from me; for I am a sinful man, O Lord. The temptation of Christ is a biblical narrative detailed in the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. An example of this from Brown: “In another example, we glimpse the youthful Jesus in the temple while his parents are frantically looking for him. There is no resurrection appearance to them, and the narrative development has not encouraged the reader to expect them to follow Jesus at the end when or even if they hear he as gone on (again) before them. 2. How and why would Luke have edited Mark […] . Both stories show a woman whose knowledge of Jesus exceeds that of the other guests, but at the same time, the nature of that knowledge is different. Discipleship is an enormously important theme in both Mark’s and Luke’s Gospels. These similarities lead many scholars to conclude that both stories relate the same incident from the life of Jesus. See Julie M. Smith, “She Hath Wrought a Good Work: The Anointing of Jesus in Mark’s Gospel,” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity, 5 (2013). Frank F. Judd Jr. and Gaye Strathearn (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University; Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2006), 92–107. Here’s the thing, though: Mark does not need to be the person who attached verses 9-20, or even the person who wrote them, in order for these 12 verses to be part of the original text. The contrast between Luke and Mark’s portrayal of the temple is never as keen as it is when Jesus dies: Mark narrates the rending of the temple veil after Jesus’ death, suggesting increased temple access through the death of Jesus; this is his final reference to the temple.  Elsewhere in his commentary, Brown argues that Luke would not “willfully make” “wholesale changes” because that view “does not harmonize with him as an authorized ‘messenger of Jesus Christ.’” But I want to suggest that it is possible for an authorized messenger to make wholesale changes and so it is conceivable that the differences between the accounts stem from Luke’s editing and thus do not necessarily indicate that there were two anointings. Filed under: Biblical Studies, New Testament No way Ole Turnip-head got 70 million plus votes. There are intelligent, thoughtful comments and commenters regularly offering productive discussion. Luke had been a physician, but he left that profession to travel with Paul. Now when he had left speaking, he said unto Simon, Launch out into the deep, and let down your nets for a draught. But Luke has a different remembrance: his account of the Last Supper contains Jesus’ command to “do this in remembrance of me.” Mark’s story of the Last Supper does not. There are several occasions where Luke takes a story from Mark and moves it to an earlier point of the narrative. Why did Mark and John omit them? It’s always gratifying when a reader zeroes in on exactly those aspects I thought were most interesting and most central to my argument.  And I hasten to add that Brown’s focus on historicity definitely bears good fruit: it has led him to make some very intriguing observations, such as noticing the likely role of women, including Mary and Philip’s daughters, as sources for Luke’s stories. Canonical Luke can therefore be read as making changes to Mark’s gospel that reflect a program to strengthen the foundational place of the disciples in the Church. And Jesus said unto them, Come ye after me, and I will make you to become fishers of men. (Talbert, p.63). I find your blog most interesting and appreciate your ongoing effort to keep to the evidence for the issues discussed! In Luke, Peter has already seen the power of Jesus’ word when he exorcised a demon with a command and healed Peter’s mother-in-law with a rebuke. Thank you for this careful and engaged reading of my work – much appreciated!”, “Very good. As Brown writes, “[the Gospels] are . For he was astonished, and all that were with him, at the draught of the fishes which they had taken: I’m so glad you’re helping to spread these ideas! Of course, at least once at Christmas there would be a sermon from Luke's wonderful story of Jesus' birth. Luke supplies a genealogy of Jesus, a detailed account of Christ's birth, as well as the parables of the Good Samaritan and the Prodigal Son. All of these are omitted by Luke. Couldn’t they include the stories and sayings that they do simply because Jesus did and said those things?This view is known as the Independence hypothesis, and it is the position that most people hold—at least before they start looking closely at the issue. The traditional authors of the canonical Gospels—Matthew the tax collector, Mark the attendant of Peter, Luke the attendant of Paul, and John the son of Zebedee—are doubted among the majority of mainstream New Testament scholars. Secondly, the Luke 5 lake scene is not a calling of the disciples as it is in Mark’s gospel. We would therefore regard Luke’s Gospel as less concerned with history and more concerned with theology. That Gospel remains as its own unique testament. The alterations range from improving Mark’s grammar, smoothing Mark’s negative portrayal of the apostles, changing the order of events, enhancing Mark’s image of Jesus, expanding Marcan stories… Scholars have long recognized that Luke’s Gospel shows a special concern for the poor. I pose the question about Luke’s omission not because it is possible to answer it definitively, but because considering it creates an opportunity to think about the distinct interests that Mark and Luke bring to their stories of Jesus’ life. The temptation of Christ is a biblical narrative detailed in the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. There is no consensus on this matter. . The Gospel of Luke is one of the only two Gospels which includes an infancy narrative, the other being Matthew. According to course materials (Bible, textbook, digital materials linked below, etc. He is one of the four evangelists who penned the good news of Jesus. Luke includes four stories, three of them unique, that feature a common pattern: (1) Jesus (2) dining (3) with sinners, (4) arousing criticism from the righteous (5:27–32; 7:36–50; 15:1–32; 19:1–10).24 In three of these stories, the complaint comes specifically from Pharisees― a point Luke emphasizes in the redaction of Mark 2:13–17 (par. So I am not arguing that Luke’s story is the same as Mark’s; I’m not convinced of that. However, neither of these theories is as likely as the interpretation offered in this paper, which is that Luke intentionally omitted the anointing story. The situation is further complicated by the interpretive decisions that we make. Most scholars since the late nineteenth century have accepted the concept of Marcan priority. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email.  So when we notice differences between the two, we might wonder what motivated Luke to change Mark’s text. In the three Gospels the voice from the cloud said slightly different things. Mark 10:44-45...and whoever wants to be first must be slave of all.For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. It is the mushrooming crowds that make them a necessity.  Notice that this phenomenon occurs in both Luke’s selection of stories and in Jesus’ spoken teachings. Relying on eyewitness evidence and oral tradition, couldn’t Matthew, Mark, and Luke have written independently of each other? On the question of omission, the answer cannot be merely that Mark and John did not have the material. This oversight has been corrected. (Part 1). Is it my imagination or is there really a sequential narrative development that I see here? So, please continue to delve deeply and share this intellectual sustenance with your grateful readers.”, — Mary Booker, – February 2020 (personal email), “These reviews of yours are so bloody weird!”. They will reappear at the cross and at the tomb, following him to Jerusalem and thereby becoming first-rank witnesses of his resurrection. Luke didn’t tell us, and we certainly can’t read his mind from this historical distance. The Isaac and Joseph Christologies; & rivalry for Scripture & Father, On J. P. Holding’s response to Vridar critique re authenticity of Paul, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y4nZ43N8Qy0, It’s how we got Donald Trump and Brexit, the US just had a choice of Re-electing a narcissistic compulsive liar…, Until the US middle class gets angry and determines to expose the fraud and farce that dominates the US government…, There is a certain inevitability to the course of events in the United States over the past 60 years. And so it tells the story in some slightly different ways than do the other gospels. Since Mark is our earliest gospel, written according to most scholars around the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 CE, or perhaps in the decade before, we have strong textual evidence that the first generation of Jesus followers were perfectly fine with a gospel account that recounted no appearances of Jesus.  For example, at one point Brown suggests that “Luke moves the story [of Jesus’ visit to the home of Mary and Martha] from its original setting in Bethany to a place in his narrative where it makes an important point about prayers and homes.” (Brown, Luke, page 17–18.) This looks very much like the sort of thing we read in Exodus and Acts. Also, he probably based his gospel on Peter’s teachings. According to course materials (Bible, textbook, digital materials linked below, etc. It is not difficult to imagine that Luke might have found Mark’s story to detract from the message that he wanted to convey about charity. John wrote last and had knowledge of the other Gospels. I appreciate his careful work on this topic; he observed something that had gone unnoticed in many other sources—even in many of the specifically feminist interpretations—regarding these female disciples: “such a place of honor, next to the Twelve, signals their high importance among Jesus’ closest followers. to express appreciation for your detailed interaction with what I’ve written!”, “Thanks for your very elaborate review! This looks very much like the sort of thing we read in Exodus and Acts. It looks like Luke or some later redactor has got into a muddle and put the first meeting of Peter and Jesus AFTER Jesus visited Peter’s place. One need not be too bothered by discrepancies between, for example, the Sermon on the Mount and the Sermon on the Plain because it is probably the case that Jesus delivered slightly different iterations of that sermon on not just one or two but many occasions. Crowds become too much for the prophet or apostle. Luke wrote the Gospel of Luke, which emphasizes Jesus Christ's humanity. The notion that it was a corrupted version of Luke, is therefore, nothing but a made-up polemic. And Jesus is very patient with them while they do so. This insight on the importance of home and family has influenced my own work on Mark as I’ve focused on the kin dynamics and settings of the stories of the Gadarene demoniac, the woman with the hemorrhage, and Jairus’ daughter. , Maybe, by listing the grave clothes, the Gospel of John creates a verisimilitude that gives more credence to all that…, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, When, Why and How People Change Their Minds, Applying Bayesian Reasoning to Trump’s Claims of Election Fraud, Tactics of Religious Innovation: Deuteronomy and Gospels « Vridar. . If so, this may be seen as one more of many other arguably anti-Marcionite agendas in canonical Luke-Acts. It has different interests. Compare Mark 3:14 with Luke 6:12–16, Mark 9:32 with Luke 9:45, (Mark 10:35–41 is entirely omitted by Luke), (Mark 8:32–33 is entirely omitted by Luke), Mark 14:31 with Luke 22:31–34, and Mark 14:50 with Luke 22:53–54. Via Lena Einhorn and her paper JESUS AND THE EGYPTIAN PROPHET we know that Mark already knew about the Egyptian Prophet and, at a minimum, based some of the stories of … If John did not agree with the virgin conception as described in the Gospels of Matthew or Luke, he certainly had the opportunity to correct the matter in his own work. See Grant Hardy, Understanding the Book of Mormon. However, I think personally that Tertullian, Ireneaus, and Epiphianus had never seen Marcion’s gospel. By contrast it is readily possible to read the Gospel of Mark as concluding with the total failure of Jesus’ disciples. And this may explain why Luke omits Mark 14:3–9: it doesn’t fit with his view of the temple; by omitting Mark’s anointing story, Luke has removed the capstone to Mark’s temple theology, which shows the temple to be hopelessly corrupted. Canonical Luke does not narrate the calling of the disciples but their commissioning. Not only did Mark write the Gospel, he also founded the Church of Alexandria, which is referred to in early Christianity as one of … The Pharisee identifies Jesus as a would-be prophet, one of Luke’s favored ways of describing Jesus. When they finally locate him “in the temple, [he is] sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions” (2:46). How and why would Luke have edited Mark 14:3-9 contrasted with Luke 7:36-50? And Jesus said unto Simon, Fear not; from henceforth thou shalt catch men. We’ve covered five reasons why Luke may have omitted Mark’s anointing story. Your clarity of expression, fair comments and personal insights are much valued.  In Luke’s case, if he has in fact edited Mark’s story, his shaping may have been related to his interest in presenting gender pairs, since Luke’s anointing―and, especially, the ways in which it differs from Mark’s version―has many parallels with the story of the calling of Levi and the subsequent controversy over eating with him. Result. . Jesus was tempted three different times. How might these differing viewpoints explain Luke’s omission of Mark’s anointing story? They agree on the basics: that discipleship means following Jesus. 2. Bruce N. Fisk. So perhaps the reason that Luke chose to omit Mark 14:3–9 is that it did not mesh well with his emphasis on serving the poor. We’ll begin by exploring five possible reasons why Luke may have omitted Mark’s anointing story. Fantastic. Why did Matthew and Luke include these stories? That’s assuming that Marcionites were a separate religion rather than a Modern critical scholarship has been more critical of the traditio I refer to your site frequently as yet more names and publications pop up requiring an academic critique and helpful recommendations for book purchases. Matthew's genealogy does not match Luke's, and Mark leaves it out altogether. And straightway he called them: and they left their father Zebedee in the ship with the hired servants, and went after him. After all, his audience would have no chance to anoint Jesus―for them, serving the poor is central and anything else could be a distraction. But such a conclusion is unwarranted; of sloppy editing, Mark knows nothing. Here’s how he restates the shopworn charge on Colbert: “What people have done is they’ve taken Mark’s gospel and Luke’s gospel and combined them together into one big gospel, which is not like either Mark or Luke.” The very nature of biography, however, is to pick and choose elements of a congruent story that the biographer wishes to emphasize.
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